Technology Management

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women in science and technology: Current Situation

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS

EMPLOYMENT

HOUSEHOLDS

Income per capita, median household, and percentage in poverty

Utah County 2005-2009 Utah 
2005-2009
United States 2005-2009
Persons per household, 2005-2009      3.79 3.14 2.6
Per capita money income in past 12 months (2009 dollars) 2005-2009      $19,125 $22,684 $27,041
Median household income, 2009      $47,471 $55,183 $50,221
Persons below poverty level, percent, 2009      14.20% 11.70% 14.30%
(U.S. Census Bureau 2010, U.S. Census Bureau 2010b)

Women are 50.3% of the population in Utah County, 49.7% in Utah, 49.7% in the United States
 
(U.S. Census Bureau 2010, U.S. Census Bureau 2010b)

Utah County Family Structures 2005-2009
Family households (families)  80.50%

With own children under 18 years   45.20%
Married-couple family   69.70%

With own children under 18 years   39.70%
Male householder, no wife present, family   3.10%

With own children under 18 years   1.40%
Female householder, no husband present, family   7.70%

With own children under 18 years   4.20%
Nonfamily households   19.50%

Householder living alone   12.80%

65 years and over  4.40%

MARRIAGE

Marriage chart 
(U.S. Census Bureau, 2011)

View more marriage statistics at http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/p70-125.pdf

WORKFORCE

October 2010: Married-couple families with own children with an unemloyed husband and employed wife
  Utah United States
2008 1.8% .9%
2009 3.4% 2.1%

(U.S. Census Bureau 2010c)

September 2010: Women's Earnings as a Percentage of Men's Earnings in the Past 12 Months of Full Time, Year Round Workers 16 and Older
U.S.: 78.2%
Utah:   68.1% 
(U.S. Census Bureau 2010d)

Utah County 2005-2009
Females over 16 in Labor Force   59.1% 
Own children under 6 years - all parents in family in labor force:  38.8% 
(U.S. Census Bureau 2010f)

Utah 2009
Percent of Married-Couple Families With Both Husband and Wife in the Labor Force: 53.1% (United States average is 53.9%)

OCCUPATION BY SEX AND MEDIAN EARNINGS

INCOME

Percentage of families and people who income in the past 12 months is below the poverty level    


Utah County 2005-2009 Utah 2005-2009 United States 2005-2009
All families 
7.9% 7.2% 9.9%

With related children under 18 years 9.1% 9.8% 15.3%

With related children under 5 years only  13.5% 11.2% 16.6%
Married couple families 5.7% 4.5% 4.8%

With related children under 18 years  6.2% 5.7% 6.7%

With related children under 5 years only 9.8% 6.8% 6.3%
Families with female householder, no husband present  24.2% 24.1% 28.7%

With related children under 18 years 30.2% 31.5% 37.1%

With related children under 5 years only 37.7% 40.4% 45.6%


(U.S. Census Bureau 2010g)

WOMEN IN EDUCATION

Over the past two decades, women have made substantial educational progress. The large gaps between the education levels of women and men that were evident in the early 1970s have essentially disappeared for the younger generation. Although they still lag behind males in mathematics and science achievement, high school females on average outperform males in reading and writing, and take more credits in academic subjects. In addition, females are more likely than males to attend college after high school, and are as likely to graduate with a post-secondary degree (National Center for Education Statistics, 2005).

Women in College

Educational Attainment by Selected Characteristics 2009 see http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2011/tables/11s0228.pdf

View additional educational attainment data at http://www.census.gov/hhes/socdemo/education/data/cps/2010/tables.html

WOMEN IN SCIENCE

As Morganson, Jones and Major describe in their research of women's under-representation in science, technology, engineering and mathematics:

Whereas women are attending college at unprecedented rates and constitute more than half of university and college populations, they continue to be underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (Planty, Kena, & Hannes, 2009). The decline in STEM enrollments along with retention problems raise concerns about the "shrinking" and "leaking" pipeline, the metaphor most ofiien used to describe declining enrollments and the differential retention of women in STEM fields (e.g.. Camp, 2002; Major & Morganson, 2008). As enrollments of women in STEM majors continue to decline, the pipeline "supplying" them to these fields is said to be shrinking (Camp, 2002). College-age women have been reported to be less likely to major in STEM fields and to be retained at a lower rate than are men (Freeman, 2004; Planty et al., 2009). When women complete undergraduate training, they continue to be underrepresented in and are more likely to leave the workforce than are men (Freeman, 2004). (2010).