Technology Management

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women in science and technology: opportunities

OPPORTUNITIES

EDUCATION AND INCOME

Table 228. Mean Earnings by Highest Degree Earned: 2008         
[In dollars. For persons 18 years old and over with earnings. Persons as of March the following year. Based on Current Population Survey; see text, Section 1, Population, and Appendix III. For definition of mean, see Guide to Tabular Presentation]         
Characteristic Total persons Mean earnings by level of highest degree (dollars)
Not a high school graduate High school graduate only Some college, no degree Associate's Bachelor's Master's Professional Doctorate
All persons\1 42,588 21,023 31,283 32,555 39,506 58,613 70,856 125,019 99,697

 







Age:  







25 to 34 years old 37,233 20,471 28,224 31,956 35,541 48,445 55,636 79,785 83,219
35 to 44 years old 49,605 23,793 35,233 41,416 42,611 66,332 76,480 130,730 102,837
45 to 54 years old 51,696 25,598 36,916 42,559 44,996 70,053 84,495 147,878 111,843
55 to 64 years old 50,947 27,393 35,338 41,741 43,062 64,807 72,604 141,584 105,255
65 years old and over 36,273 18,550 27,532 32,218 28,255 43,378 45,802 112,449 74,518

 







Sex:  







Male 51,148 24,831 36,753 39,635 48,237 72,868 88,450 147,518 116,574
Female 32,922 14,521 24,329 25,296 32,253 44,078 54,517 87,723 70,898
   







White\2 43,666 21,590 32,126 33,298 40,317 59,866 72,125 127,968 99,943
..Male 52,672 25,386 37,852 40,744 49,655 75,053 91,251 151,669 116,613
..Female 33,115 14,370 24,610 25,335 32,411 43,848 54,308 85,545 71,702
   







Black\2 32,874 18,123 27,265 28,570 34,494 46,527 58,311 104,656 92,998
..Male 36,507 22,344 30,985 31,910 40,790 51,691 66,085 (B) (B)
..Female 29,734 13,976 23,195 25,982 30,538 42,858 52,919 (B) (B)
   







Hispanic\3 30,291 21,310 27,020 29,610 36,830 48,081 74,122 81,969 96,070
..Male 34,240 24,340 30,618 34,721 46,877 56,980 92,644 99,804 (B)
..Female 24,646 14,960 21,725 23,979 28,058 39,231 54,385 (B) (B)
SYMBOL:                         
B Base figure too small to meet statistical standards for reliability of a derived figure.         
FOOTNOTES:         







\1 Includes other races not shown separately.         
\2 For persons who selected this race group only. The 2003 Current Population Survey (CPS) allowed respondents to choose more than one race. Beginning 2003 data represent persons who selected this race group only and exclude persons reporting more than one race. The CPS in prior years only allowed         respondents to report one race group. See also comments on race in the text for Section 1, Population.         
\3 Persons of Hispanic origin may be any race.         
http://www.census.gov/population/www/socdemo/educ-attn.html




Internet release date: 12/15/2010






CONSIDER AGAIN: (also in 'current situation' page):

DEALING WITH DISCREPANCY

Most men, and some women, deny that exclusionary factors exist. Thus, women in science bear a triple burden:

The Web is a field where there are many opportunities for either careers or improved communication channels.

"Women academic scientists use information technology (IT) to overcome isolation, patriarchal organitzational structures, lack of mobility and other constraints that hinder professional advancement. The use of information and communication technology—particularly the Internet—has the potential to limit the negative consequences that arise from these constraints" (Etzkowitz, Gupta, and  Kemelgor, 2010).

"Although technology cannot resolve gender inequities arising at the organizational level or alter patrifocal norms, it helps women overcome constraints that are typically greater in developing countries, thereby ensuring a more level playing field for women to compete with men" (Etzkowitz, Gupta, and  Kemelgor, 2010).

Recent evidence provided by a pioneering four-country study conducted for the European Commission analyzes patterns in TIE [technology transfer, innovation and entrepreneurship] professions:

WOMEN IN EDUCATION AND VALUE OF A DEGREE

About 33 percent of young women 25 to 29 had a bachelor’s degree or more education in 2007, compared with 26 percent of their male counterparts, according to tabulations released today by the U.S. Census Bureau.

The series of tables, Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007, showed that among adults 25 and older, men remain slightly more likely than women to hold at least a bachelor’s degree (30 percent compared with 28 percent). However, as the percentage for women rose between 2006 and 2007 (from 27 percent), it remained statistically unchanged for men.

The tables also showed that more education continues to pay off in a big way: Adults with advanced degrees earn four times more than those with less than a high school diploma. Workers 18 and older with a master’s, professional or doctoral degree earned an average of $82,320 in 2006, while those with less than a high school diploma earned $20,873 (United States Census Bureau, 2008).

View educational attainment in Utah (U.S. Census Bureau. Note: You may need to change location)